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Chemicals, Economy | Consumption

Guidance for the use of environmentally sound substances

For producers and professional users of chemical products relevant to the aquatic environment PART ONE

PART ONE Five steps for the evaluation of environmental risks

Chemical substances usually serve a specific technical purpose in a product or production process. At the same time, the technical qualities of a substance may be connected with risks to the environment and human health. A particular risk results from the release of long-lived (persistent) and harmful chemicals, which may accumulate in the long run in living organisms or water eco-systems. Such ch...read more

Number of pages
66
Year of publication
rated as helpful
72
Economy | Consumption

Evolution of commitments under the UNFCCC: Involving newly industrialized economies and developing countries


International negotiations have lead to first steps in combating climate change with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. Under the Protocol, industrialized countries have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by around five per cent between 2008 and 2012 compared to 1990 levels. It is however broadly recognized that further steps are necess...read more

Series
Climate Change
Number of pages
106
Year of publication
rated as helpful
96
Chemicals

Methodological problems of assessing the economic impacts of EU chemicals policy

Summary results of the conference of experts at the Umweltbundeamt (Ferderal Environment Agenca) on 6.2.2003


The European Commission has elaborated the principles of a new chemicals policy in Europe in its White Paper on “Strategy for a future Chemicals Policy” (European Commission, 2001). Studies have since been published for Germany and for the EU which look into the potential economic repercussions of future policies on chemicals. These examine very different aspects using different methods and based...read more

Series
background paper
Number of pages
23
Year of publication
rated as helpful
52
Air

Aerosols over Europe. Focus on Black Carbon

Modellierung und Prüfung von Strategien zur Verminderung der Belastung durch Ozon


Based on a first estimate of Black Carbon (BC) emissions over Europe model calculations have been performed to obain BC-concentrations. The model results have a clear tendency to be lower than the observations.read more

Number of pages
25
Year of publication
rated as helpful
96
Air

Refined 3-d Transport and Horizontal Diffusion for the REM/CALGRID Air Quality Model

Modellierung und Prüfung von Strategien zur Verminderung der Belastung durch Ozon


The REM/CALGRID model's available advection schemes have numerical diffusivities that are sufficiently low that one must be concerned about: (a) adding back some horizontal diffusion appropriate to the atmospheric conditions being modeled; and (b) operator-splitting and shear flow errors, heretofore buried by the numerical diffusion.read more

Number of pages
45
Year of publication
rated as helpful
83
Economy | Consumption

Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control in selected Industrial Activities

Part II "Printing"

- Installations for Surface Treatment using organic solvents for Dressing, Impregnating, Printing, Coating -

Printing technology is classified into four main printing methods and a range of less usual methods. Many of these less customary processes do not play an important role in today’s industrial production because of their low material flow and energy flux. In the following illustration the relevant processes for the BAT discussion are marked grey. For each of these processes some keywords about esse...read more

Number of pages
56
Year of publication
rated as helpful
101
Climate | Energy, Sustainability | Strategies | International matters

A Systematic Analysis of the Characteristics of Energy Models with Regard to their Suitability for Practical Policy Recommendations for Developing Future Strategies to Mitigate Climate Change


The results of energy models can have a substantial impact on climate policy debates. The goal of this study is to discuss the theoretical background of the models, to analyse their strengths and weaknesses and to relate the research questions to the models. Here the systemisation approaches will be described and the four most common model type, general equilibrium models, input-output models, opt...read more

Series
Climate Change
Number of pages
1
Year of publication
rated as helpful
61
Economy | Consumption

Management Guide for Regional Co-operation


Co-operation" is a topical theme. For many people in society, trade and industry as well as in public administration, co-operation, strategic networks and alliances are an important prerequisite for success and development. Voluntary co-operation is increasingly to be found in different areas of public life: - between towns and communities (inter-communal co-operation), - between societal groups i...read more

Number of pages
110
Year of publication
rated as helpful
143