At a glance
- The rail share in freight transport fluctuated between 18 % and 19 % over the past years.
- The share of inland waterways transport fell continuously from 13.5 % to 8.9 % since 1999.
- According to the Federal Government, the rail freight transport share should have been rising to 25 % by 2015, while final energy consumption from renewables should have reached 14 %.
- Both targets were clearly missed.
More than three quarters of the total freight transport is managed by road. However, shifting transport to more environmentally friendly modes such as ships and trains is a prerequisite for sustainable mobility.
It has to be said that trains and ships pose their own environmental challenges. Rail freight transport causes noise pollution, while inland waterways transport require well maintained waterways. Extending waterways is often associated with a decline in water quality and a burden on the natural environment, but energy consumption per tonne-kilometre is significantly lower in rail and ship transport than in heavy goods vehicle transport. The same applies to greenhouse gas emissions.
For short distances under 50 kilometres, motorised freight transport is almost unrivalled. Trains and ships are unsuitable for extensive distribution of goods. This is why for this indicator, only goods transport over distances above 50 kilometres was taken into account.
Assessing the development
The long-term development of rail freight transport was positive. Between 1999 and 2008, it first increased considerably. Since then, no clear trend could be observed. In inland waterways transport, the trend has been clearly negative. Between 1999 and 2015, its freight transport market share fell almost continuously.
In the Strategy for Sustainable Development of 2002, the Federal Government set the target of increasing the rail share in freight transport volume to 25 % and the inland waterways shipping share to 14 % by 2015 (Federal Government 2002). These targets were clearly missed. Both targets are no longer included in the revised German Sustainable Development Strategy (Federal Government 2016).
Measures taken by the Federal Government could not prevent the ever-increasing dominance of road based freight transport. Clearly, more efforts must be made. It must be also taken into consideration that from an environmental perspective, goods traffic as such should be reduced. However, we currently expect a continuous rise in freight transport.
The figures on which the indicator is based are published annually by the Federal Ministry for Transport and Infrastructure (BMVI) in its series ‘Verkehr in Zahlen’ (BMVI 2016; in German only). They are largely based on data that have been published by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany in its paper ‘Verkehr im Überblick’ (StBA 2015; in German only). Descriptions on the methods used are found in the quality reports of the Federal Statistical Office of Germany (StBA n.d.). Figures on road freight transport are based on data collected by the Federal Motor Transport Authority.
More detailed information: 'Fahrleistungen, Verkehrsaufwand und Modal Split' (in German only).