Technical climate change adaptation measures play an important role for the transport infrastructure. This means a great potential for the preparation of the infrastructure to climate change and the prevention of damages. Many adaptation measures can already be implemented with the currently existing knowledge and should be integrated into the maintenance planning.
Technical measures for dealing with high temperatures are, for example, the use of heat-resistant asphalt mixtures and continuously welded rails or an improved cooling of the electronic components of infrastructures. In contrast, investments in the protection against road icing will be less necessary in the long term because of the likely reduction of frost days.
In order to prevent damage from heavy rain events, especially the planning and dimension of drainage systems has to be adapted. This concerns drainage and pumping systems for tunnels, bridges and roads. In areas that are at risk of being affected by landslides, slope fortifications can protect tracks during heavy rain. Risks resulting from water on roads can be avoided by milling out ruts or adjusting the street configuration.
Adaptation measures to storms can include specific planning and building standards. The design of bridges, for example, can be adapted to improve the connection between the road surface and the foundation structure. To this end, building materials with increased stability are needed. In addition, protection forests and embankments built alongside roads and railways support the precautionary measures.
Rising sea levels can also threaten the coastal transport infrastructure. In that respect it is actually advisable to consider the relocation of routes and plan alternative routes.
Ecosystem measures play a subordinate role when it comes to adapting the transport infrastructure to climate change. When dealing with increasing heavy wind events and storms, the adaptation of tree species and vegetation composition along routes can be beneficial. It is, for example, possible to plant other species in order to reduce the risk of falling trees. A greater vegetation control can help to prevent embankment fires. In addition, larger aisles without plants can help in both cases. This, however, entails conflicting interests because the vegetation on roads and rails generally also fulfils important shading functions, which contribute significantly to protecting the transport infrastructure and vehicles against overheating. Furthermore, healthy forests protect vehicles from squalls.
Legal, political and management measures
Legal, political and management measures support the adaptation of the transport sector to the impacts of climate change in three areas: the planning (new construction), infrastructure stock (preventive) and when dealing with weather damage (subsequently). Since both the private sector and public authorities are responsible for transport infrastructure, responsibilities and tasks must be distributed appropriately. This is the only way to avoid that transport infrastructure, which belongs to the critical infrastructures, is damaged permanently.
However, since the consequences of climate change for this sector are yet insufficiently explored, it is important to expand the knowledge base. This includes a customised monitoring of the infrastructure.
Individual transport modes face specific challenges. Especially the maritime traffic, for example, has to expand monitoring, forecasting and warning services and adapt the risk management and technical requirements for ships and port infrastructure because storm events and increased heavy seas become more likely due to climate change. In view of inland waterways, it is necessary to adapt the maintenance of the waterways to possible low water levels.
In addition, public authorities need to revise policies and guidelines. This concerns, among other things, guidelines for disaster management, emergency rescue systems, construction and planning decisions and other norms and standards. This requires improved communication and cooperation between the industry, associations and authorities.
Also organisational measures can contribute to the adaptation of the transport sector:
- Increasing the frequency of maintenance and repair intervals
- Replacing damaged transport infrastructure
- Risk and concern analyses for the infrastructure stock
- Risk mapping for extreme weather events
Furthermore, improved communication can increase the problem awareness of all stakeholders and traffic participants and contribute to self-provision and acceptance of adaptation costs.
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