INKLIM 2012 - Integrated Climate Protection Programme Hesse 2012

Background and Goals

The Integrated Climate Protection Programme Hesse 2012 (Integriertes Klimaschutzprogramm Hessen, INKLIM 2012) is intended to consolidate the technical information base for climate protection. In parallel with programmes carried out by other German states, it designates pragmatic aims for the contribution of the state of Hesse to the reduction of greenhouse gases. For this purpose, data needs to be updated and analysed, and various scenarios need to be developed for the conceptual period up to 2012. Existing programs should be considered under the aspect of climate protection and possible further measures need to be defined in accordance with the estimated resources (financial and personnel) available to the state government. The research project will be supervised by an interdepartmental working group and will develop proposals for the integrated modules of the Hessian climate protection programme. Climate effects and adaptation measures in the areas of agriculture, forestry and water management are presented. At the same time, climate protection offers opportunities for new technologies and innovations in energy conservation and the substitution of fossil fuels. INKLIM 2012 consists of three modules:

Module I: Basics and technical/economic scenarios 2005/2012

Module II: Climate change and impacts of climate change in Hesse

Module III: Instruments, costs and measures for implementation

Specific to the programme is the integrated consideration of both greenhouse gas avoidance measures and adaptation measures to climate change. First, Module I determines the potential and the associated costs for preventing greenhouse gas emissions in the sectors energy conversion, commerce and industry, buildings and transport in order to use the information obtained in an energy system analysis. In Module II, the work concerns the regional impacts of the global climate change on Hesse. Finally, in Module III, the economic and financial implications of the results of Modules I and II are determined and used to identify the scope of the Hessian state government for establishing a climate-friendly political programme. For this, the economic benefits and financial costs will need to be determined and the necessary adaptation measures in the areas of agriculture, forestry and water engineering will need to be presented.


  • To update the technical information base and data on the climate change
  •  To calculate scenarios relevant to government climate policy for the period from 2005 to 2012
  •  To investigate the climate change and its impact at a regional level
  •  To support climate protection initiatives in Hesse
  •  To develop instruments and measures for effective regional climate protection
  •  To review the associated costs in pursuing different technologies as well as stakeholder and acceptance models

Content time


Research area/region

  • Germany
Region of implementation (all German federal states)
  • Hesse
Natural spatial classification
  • Alp and North Bavarian hills
  • Low mountain ranges left and right of Rhine
  • Upper Rhine Rift
  • Central low mountain ranges and Harz

Steps in the process of adaptation to climate change

Step 1: Understand and describe climate change

Approach and results 

Scientific analysis and examination of historical statistics on the climate change since 1900 Prediction of the possible climate development in Hesse up to the year 2100 using a statistical regionalisation method based on weather patterns, with the aid of the IPCC emission scenario (SRES) B2 and the results of the climate model ECHAM4/OPYC3. Apart from the political framework, the the integrated scenario analysis will also concern itself with economic, demographic and technological developments.

Parameter (climate signals)
  • Altered rainfall patterns
  • Higher average temperatures
  • Extreme precipitation (incl. hail, snow)
Further Parameters 

trans-weather patterns,extreme weather events

Step 2a: Identify and assess risks - climate effects and impact

Approach and results 

The analysis of the regional climate effects is mainly carried out in Module II The climate effects investigated include, for example, the increase in the risk of flooding in winter and of extremely low water levels in summer, which can pose problems for waterway travel and shipping, the operation of large power plants and for waste introduction from sewage treatment plants. For groundwater, the climate projections predict a higher renewal rate in many areas of Hesse, and thus a tendency to higher groundwater levels. In agriculture, a general tendency to lower crop yields can be expected, accompanied by greater variations in the annual yield from one year to the next. For fruit and wine growing, there may be a danger through crop burns, leading to a decline in quality and yield. Changes in the regional wine characteristics are also to be expected, due to higher temperatures. Fruit growers also face dangers from the increased risk of hail and late frosts. Another consequence is the shift of the phenological phases, such as the budding and emergence of flowers and leaves in plants, that will occur much earlier in the year. For forestry, temperature increases and summer droughts pose a problem for shallow-rooted trees (e.g. spruce), especially in sandy soils. Because of the high soil carbon level, the climate change could lead to feedback effects here, if the microbial carbon respiration is accelerated. A further problematic effect could prove to be the increase in erosion, by which fertile soil is lost for agricultural use due to heavy rainfall after dry periods in summer. The climate change will also have negative effects on the biodiversity in Hesse. These will take the form of direct effects, such as the extinction of certain species due to changes in their habitat occurring too rapidly for their ability to adapt, but also of more complex effects, such as disturbing predator-prey interrelationships, for example. In the area of public health, risks will arise from direct heat effects, but also from the spread of diseases previously unknown in Hesse.

Step 3: Develop and compare measures

Measures and/or strategies 

Background and aims Adaptive measures need to be implemented with the aim of minimizing the negative effects of the climate change and maximizing the positive effects. Adaptive measures are divided into:

  • Reactive adaptive measures (e.g. relocation of residents in unprotected flood areas)
  •  Anticipatory adaptive measures (e.g. long-term flood protection programmes, research programmes on climate effects, information programmes for publishing findings)
  •  Autonomous adaptive measures (measures taken by affected individuals themselves) and
  •  Planned, strategic adaptive measures (usually implemented by government agencies)

.Adaptive measures considered are, for example in the field of agriculture and forestry, a changed agricultural and forestry management. Forestry adaptation measures in Hesse, for example, include changes in tree species selection, rejuvenation of tree populations, forest thinning and stand diversity management, new forest protection strategies and the conservation and promotion of biodiversity in forests. In the area of ??flood protection, dikes or shelters serve to reduce climate damage due to extreme weather events.

Time horizon
  • 2071–2100 (far future)


Funding / Financing 

Hessian Ministry of Environment, Energy, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (HMULV)

Project management 

Hessian Agency for Environment and Geology (HLUG)


Coordination of Modules I and III:
Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung Mannheim GmbH (ZEW), Institute for Energy Economics and Rational Use of Energy (IER) of the University of Stuttgart on behalf of the Hessian Ministry of Environment, Energy, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (HMULV)

Coordination of Module II:
HLUG on behalf of and in consultation with HMULV Cooperation: scientific support offered by the joint venture consisting of the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (FhG-ISI) Karlsruhe, Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH (IWU - Institute for housing and environment) Darmstadt, Zentrum für Integrierte Verkehrssysteme GmbH (ZIV) Darmstadt, Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH (IFEU), Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (SET), R&D dept. / Energetic Use of Biomass at Hanau


HLUG - Hessian Agency for Environment and Geology
Rheingaustraße 186
D-65203 Wiesbaden

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Fields of action:
 agriculture  biological diversity  human health and care  soil  water regime and water management  woodland and forestry