Mobile air conditioning in cars
EU Directive 2006/40/EC relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles has prohibited the use of refrigerants with a global warming potential (GWP) higher than 150 in new vehicle types of passenger cars and small commercial vehicles since 1 January 2011. From January 2017 the ban applies to mobile air conditioning systems of every new vehicle of these categories.
Whereas since 2012 the flammable fluorinated refrigerant, 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R1234yf) has been on the market for new car types in Europe and the USA, a few car manufacturers are developing systems for carbon dioxide (CO2) as refrigerant. First cars have been available on the market since end of 2016. The German Environment Agency had successfully trialed the refrigerant CO2 in one of its official cars from 2009 to 2017.
Mobile air conditioning in buses
Mobile air conditioning systems in buses are still using tetrafluoroethane (R134a), a greenhouse gas with a climate impact that is 1,430 higher than that of carbon dioxide. A climate-friendly alternative exists: Some city buses are already using CO2-based mobile air conditioning systems. For more information, go to air conditioning for buses.
Mobil air conditioning in rail vehicles
Fluorinated refrigerants are still the standard used in rail vehicle air conditioning systems today. One class of ICE trains has been cooling with air conditioning systems using ambient air for about 15 years. The German railway company Deutsche Bahn for instance plans to switch to natural refrigerants in the future. Possible solutions include systems with the natural refrigerant CO2 or modernized systems based on air-cycle technology. For more information, go to mobile air conditioning for rail vehicles.