refrigerant

Climate | Energy

Climate friendly mobile air conditioning for buses

a black and yellow bus of the BVG with inscription "CO2"

Buses are eco-friendly means of transport, nevertheless their climate performance can be increased still further. Today’s mobile air conditioning systems in buses still use the refrigerant tetrafluoroethane (R134a), a greenhouse gas with a 1,430 times higher impact to the climate than carbon dioxide. There is a climate friendly alternative: Some city buses already use CO2 air conditioning systems. read more

Climate | Energy

Mobile air conditioning with fluorinated refrigerants

The photo shows that the fluorinated refrigerant 1234yf burned during the laboratory test.

An EU directive bans the use of fluorinated greenhouse gases with global warming potential exceeding 150 for mobile air conditioning systems in motor vehicles since January 2011. Thus the current refrigerant tetrafluoroethane (R134a) has to be replaced. Tests in laboratory and car showed that the new refrigerant 1234yf selected by car industry can lead to fires. read more

Climate | Energy

Mobile air conditioning in cars, buses and railway vehicles

An EU directive has banned the use of fluorinated refrigerants with a global warming potential of more than 150 in certain mobile air conditioning systems since Jan. 2011. It requires the previously used refrigerant tetrafluoroethane (R134a) to be replaced. Natural refrigerants are considered the best environmental alternative. Climate-friendly alternatives are also available for buses and trains. read more

Climate | Energy

Heat pumps

Luft-Wasser-Wärmepumpe

Heat pumps are coming into increasing use for heating of buildings and for hot water production in commercial as well as industrial applications. Heat pumps use natural heat in a very energy-efficient way. read more

Climate | Energy

Emissions and degradation products

Look from outer space: the Indian Ocean

Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases, i.e. partially fluorinated hydrocarbons, fully fluorinated hydrocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride) are used for purposes such as refrigerants, foam blowing agents in certain foam products, and insulating gas in switchgears. Some of these substances have an extremely high Global Warming Potential. read more

Climate | Energy

Persistent fluorinated greenhouse gases

The atmospheric concentration increases. It was 10 ppt in 2020.

Long-lived fluorinated greenhouse gases are characterized by a long atmospheric residence time and a global warming potential well above 5000 CO2 equivalents. They are not degraded in manageable periods of time, but accumulate in the atmosphere. Besides sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and fully fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFC), such as CF4 and C2F6, belong to this group of subs... read more

Climate | Energy

Emission trajectories

As a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Germany is required to elaborate annual emission inventories, including for fluorinated greenhouse gases. read more

The Umweltbundesamt

For our environment