fluorinated greenhouse gases

Climate | Energy

Heat pumps


Heat pumps are coming into increasing use for heating of buildings and for hot water production in commercial as well as industrial applications. Heat pumps use natural heat in a very energy-efficient way. read more

Climate | Energy

Emissions and degradation products

Look from outer space: the Indian Ocean

Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases, i.e. partially fluorinated hydrocarbons, fully fluorinated hydrocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride) are used for purposes such as refrigerants, foam blowing agents in certain foam products, and insulating gas in switchgears. Some of these substances have an extremely high Global Warming Potential. read more

Climate | Energy

Persistent fluorinated greenhouse gases

The atmospheric concentration increases. It was 10 ppt in 2020.

Long-lived fluorinated greenhouse gases are characterized by a long atmospheric residence time and a global warming potential well above 5000 CO2 equivalents. They are not degraded in manageable periods of time, but accumulate in the atmosphere. Besides sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and fully fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFC), such as CF4 and C2F6, belong to this group of subs... read more

Climate | Energy

Emission trajectories

As a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Germany is required to elaborate annual emission inventories, including for fluorinated greenhouse gases. read more

Climate | Energy

Mobile air conditioning with climate-friendly refrigerant CO2

Silver VW Touran in front of the UBA headquarters.

An EU directive has banned the use of fluorinated greenhouse gases with global warming potential exceeding 150 in mobile air conditioning systems since January 2011. CO2 used as a refrigerant is an alternative. An UBA official car had used a CO2 mobile air conditioning system from 2009 to 2017. Since October 2016, first cars with CO2 air conditioning systems have been offered. read more

Climate | Energy


Illustration of a typical gas-insulated switchgear

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆), which has a very high global warming potential, is used for insulation and arc quenching in switchgear. SF₆ emissions have been successfully reduced thanks to a voluntary industry commitment. Alternative products to substitute SF₆ in various applications have been developed. read more

Climate | Energy

Mobile air conditioning with fluorinated refrigerants

The photo shows that the fluorinated refrigerant 1234yf burned during the laboratory test.

An EU directive bans the use of fluorinated greenhouse gases with global warming potential exceeding 150 for mobile air conditioning systems in motor vehicles since January 2011. Thus the current refrigerant tetrafluoroethane (R134a) has to be replaced. Tests in laboratory and car showed that the new refrigerant 1234yf selected by car industry can lead to fires. read more

Climate | Energy

Statutes and regulations


Fluorinated greenhouse gases and CFC are governed by international environmental treaties (Kyoto Protocol, Montreal Protocol) whose internationally, legally binding guidelines are implemented by European regulations and directives. Further legislation is enacted to achieve EU environmental protection goals. The body of European guidelines is complemented by national laws and regulations. read more

The Umweltbundesamt

For our environment