Background and Goals
As one of the most densely populated areas in Germany, with 730 inhabitants per km², the Stuttgart region - consisting of the city of Stuttgart and the five surrounding districts Esslingen, Göppingen, Böblingen, Ludwigsburg and Rems-Murr with a total population of 2.7 million - is confronted by a wide range of climate effects due to the diversity of its natural landscape and urban structure.
Specific measures to reduce CO2 emissions and also to adapt to the effects of climate change have been supported for some years in the Stuttgart region at a regional and local level. To combine and develop previous activities, the Greater Stuttgart Region Local Government Association, the Stuttgart Region Economic Development Corporation and the towns of Ludwigsburg and Esslingen am Neckar have joined together in the "KlimaMORO - Spatial development strategies for climate change" project.
The objective was to produce a climate strategy for the region, coordinating regional and local activities. Central elements of the project were setting up a regional climate information system (KISS), establishing a region-wide stakeholder network made up of technical experts and representatives from business, policy and administration, and deriving and implementing specific measures.
- Alp and North Bavarian hills
Steps in the process of adaptation to climate change
Step 1: Understand and describe climate change
Use of the REMO, CLM, WETTREG and STAR regional climate models;
the latest climate projections are provided by the German Meteorological Office (DWD);
- Heat waves
- Altered rainfall patterns
- Higher average temperatures
- Extreme precipitation (incl. hail, snow)
- Dry periods
temperature threshold days (summer days, hot days), wind speed, extreme events (hot periods, dry periods, gales, storms)
Step 2a: Identify and assess risks - climate effects and impact
The expected effects of climate change in the Stuttgart region include an increase in the mean annual temperature by up to five degrees Celsius, a doubling of summer and hot days, heat waves, low water levels, dry periods, severe storms with flooding and powerful gales. Consequences for the population include an increase in thermal load, and for the environment, economy and agriculture water shortages and flood damage. High adaptation costs are already being forecast.
Step 2b: Identify and assess risks - Vulnerability, risks and chances
Vulnerability will be studied in the areas of water, conservation / biodiversity, agriculture and forestry and health. The region has a high level of vulnerability in the urban conurbation, in agriculture and forestry and in its river landscapes. The model region has a particular focus on location quality (thermal load, quality of life), water balance (water shortages and dependencies in water supply) and economic risks (production stoppages, navigability, cooling of power stations, irrigation and forestry).
The sensitivity of different land uses and land functions have been determined as part of a comprehensive vulnerability analysis, and specific requirements for action have been outlined. By involving numerous technical experts at an early stage in a regional climate network, both the analysis and the options highlighted have been very specifically tailored to regional conditions and needs.
The results of the vulnerability analyses formed the basis for developing strategic approaches and recommended actions for effective climate effect adaptation. They reveal numerous challenges and detail them from a spatial perspective. This gives stakeholders in spatial planning, building development planning and specialist planning a basis for their planning measures. Preliminary results will be used in demonstration projects in partner local authorities for land use planning and square design.
Step 3: Develop and compare measures
A key element of the project is to set up a broad network made up of all the important stakeholders such as local authorities, specialist bodies, associations, non-governmental organisations, business etc. that will extend beyond the term of the project. A dual strategy is being pursued: In addition to informal agreement and testing of model examples in the partner local authorities, aspects of the climate strategy will be made binding in relevant partial updates of the regional plan.
Model examples for adaptation are: Expansion of flood retention areas with extensive agricultural use; Reclamation of wet grassland to increase their effect in regulating drainage and for climate protection; Creation of green roofing to improve the climate in urban areas.
Beyond the term of the model project, two demonstration projects with partner local authorities are being prepared. The results will be incorporated into integrated guidelines. Information and participation will play a crucial role:
- In Esslingen am Neckar, the results of the vulnerability analysis will be incorporated when updating the land use plan.
- In Ludwigsburg, the imminent renovation of a square will be accompanied by a development review based on climate change perspectives, involving assessment of different planning options.
- 2071–2100 (far future)
Step 4: Plan and implement measures
All relevant results have been provided to communities in the region and other stakeholders in the "Stuttgart Regional regional climate information system" (KISS) that has been developed.
Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS) and the Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development (BBSR): KlimaMORO
coordination: Stuttgart Region;
regional research assistant: University of Stuttgart, Institute for Spatial Planning and Development Planning (IREUS)
Stuttgart Region Economic Development, cities of Ludwigsburg and Esslingen;
Verband Region Stuttgart