In spite of climate change, tourism remains a growth industry in Germany. Many tourism sectors have several effective adaptation options. In view of winter sports tourism, however, it is expected that the possible adaptation measures will not be adequate to compensate for future losses caused by climate change. read more
The federal states have an important role when it comes to assessing regional climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation options. All states have therefore started to address the issue of climate change adaptation. Some have already published their own adaptation strategies and action plans or are currently working out such strategies.
Sectoral adaptation measures depend on the specific requirements and vulnerabilities of the individual sectors, the so-called fields of action. Although the German Adaptation Strategy has taken an integrated approach, it also addresses the importance of sectoral approaches in order to develop targeted adaptation measures.
Classification of adaptation measures
There are different approaches to classify adaptation measures. One of them distinguishes technical, integrated as well as legal, political and management measures:
- Technical adaptation refers to solutions such as infrastructural or construction measures. An example is the construction of dams against floods.
- Integrated ecosystem measures aim at the restoration and preservation of functioning ecosystems in order to allow adaptation to climate change impacts. Examples are the (re-)establishing or maintaining of natural inundation areas to provide protection against floods.
- Adaptation in the fields of law, policy and management concerns control and management approaches adopted at the political, social or private level. These include insurance and consulting services as well as risk management or emergency response plans.
- Bundesregierung (2008): German Adaptation Strategy
- UBA (2011): Stakeholder-Dialoge: Chancen und Risiken des Klimawandels, Abschlussbericht
There are several adaptation options in the transport sector. However, many stakeholders are not yet sufficiently informed and sensitised. In order to prevent greater damage and high costs, effective and timely adaptation measures are necessary. read more
In order to meet the diverse impacts of climate change on the water balance, the efficiency of water use, flood and sea protection and the appropriate infrastructure must be improved. In addition, an awareness of risks should be created. Information to prevent property damage and personal injury should be provided. read more
Due to the interdisciplinary nature of spatial planning, this sector can consider the impacts of climate change across different sectors. In that respect, spatial planning has to harmonise or balance varying interests and put spatial provision concepts at the beginning of risk avoidance chains. read more
Temperature changes that occur as a result of climate change can have a strong impact on the health of the population. The increasing number of hot days, new pathogens and extreme weather events, such as storms or floods, constitute challenges. These shall be met primarily with the help of education measures, early warning systems and medical research. read more
The impacts of climate change on agriculture vary significantly, depending on the respective region. In the central mountain areas and in Northern Germany, higher temperatures allow for longer growing seasons, while increasing droughts may lead to a decline in agricultural yields in East and Southwest Germany. An appropriate adaptation measure can be, for instance, the selection of new crops. read more
The adaptation of industry and commerce requires protective measures for locations and infrastructure as well as innovative products and more efficient production technologies. These allow for greater independence of raw materials and cooling water and create export opportunities. If industry and commerce react to climate change prematurely, they can successfully compete in the long term. read more
Although forestry has a relatively high degree of adaptability in comparison to other sectors, the implementation of individual measures is complex and expensive. In addition, the results often only become visible after many years. However, adaptation is necessary to protect the important ecological functions of forests and maintain their economic potential. read more